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Governance

Wold Energy Issues Monitor 2018

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, May 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
The monitor helps to define the world energy agenda and its evolution over time. It provides a high-level perception of what constitute issues of critical uncertainty, in contrast to those that require immediate action or act as developing signals for the future. It is an essential tool for understanding the complex and uncertain environment in which energy leaders must operate, and a tool through which one can challenge own assumptions on the key drivers within the energy landscape.
This ninth iteration of the monitor is based on insights provided by more than 1,200 energy leaders to provide over 30 national assessments across six regions. It first discusses global issues regarding energy, then deliver country by country assessments of what the latter's national energy agendas should look like.
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128
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European Space Programs and the Digital Challenge

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Wednesday, November 15, 2017
Abstract in English: 
The progress made in space exploration and digital technology have long been dis-synchronized. This is no longer the case- space programs are now both an actor of the digital revolution, since most of the data are being communicated through satellites, and themselves revolutionized.
The point of this study is to understand the tremendous changes affecting this sector, through the inclusion of new technologies and new actors, and to outline a way for Europe to remain an independent and strong actor in the space exploration sector- which is key to remain a credible global power.
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138
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Medical Data - Can the digital tsunami revolutionize our public health services ?

Title Original Language: 
Données médicales-Le tsunami numérique peut-il révolutionner nos systèmes de santé publique ?
Abstract Original Language: 
Trouver l’équilibre : voilà la tâche difficile des législateurs pour réguler l’e-santé. Les données médicales et les nouvelles technologies sont à la fois prometteuses et sensibles. Prometteuses, parce que leur utilisation massive et rapide permettra d’améliorer la qualité des soins et les coûts de notre système de santé. Sensibles, parce qu’elles posent des questions morales (e.g., la possible ré-identification du patient).
Ambition et prudence doivent donc guider la régulation de l’e-santé et, plutôt qu’une série de préconisations techniques, nous avons articulé nos recommandations autour de quatre axes stratégiques: remettre le patient au coeur de ses données médicales, poursuivre la consolidation de l’infrastructure de données médicales et en extraire toute la richesse, repenser les réglementations de développement et de
mise sur le marché des technologies de l’e-santé, renforcer la culture du numérique et des données chez les professionnels de la santé. Pour chaque axe, nous proposons plusieurs initiatives concrètes qui pourront inspirer les différentes parties prenantes de la santé et les guider dans leurs prises de décisions.
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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, June 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
When regulating the digital health services, lawmakers are confronted to a difficult challenge-finding the right balance. Medical data and new technologies are both exciting and sensitive-On the one hand, their massive usage will help improve the quality of treatments and reduce the cost of our health services. On the other, they pose moral questions (e.g. the possible re-identification of the patient).
Ambition and Care must be the guidelines for the digital health services regulation. We do not give technical recommendations, but outline our advice along four strategic axes- Put the patient back at the heart of his/her medical data, Consolidate the infrastructure of medical data and use it to its full potential, Rethinking the regulation of the development and commercialization of digital health technologies, Strengthening the digital and data culture among physicians. For each of those axes, we propose concrete initiatives which will hopefully inspire the different actors of the health sector and help them in their decision-making.
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79
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Towards a more resilient euro area

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, June 18, 2018
Abstract in English: 
This volume gathers the contribution made by different experts in the "Future Europe" forum on how to strengthen the economic and monetary Union. These are personal-and diverging-opinions from the different contributors dealing with a broad range of topics such as monetary policy, fiscal policy, systemic risk management, risk sharing and sovereign debt management etc. suggesting different ways and means to solve the current eurozone's problems and difficulties.
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122
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Deception operations

Abstract Original Language: 
Souvent assimilées à la ruse et aux stratagèmes, les opérations de déception sont une pratique de guerre à la fois ancienne et méconnue, tant au niveau stratégique que tactique ou opératif. Leurs principaux procédés sont la dissimulation, la simulation ou l'intoxication, qi toutes contribuent à tromper l'ennemi et lui faire croire à ne illusion qui doit causer sa perte. Malgré une efficacité maintes fois démontrée dans l'histoire, cette pratique ne va pas sans poser de dilemmes-d'ordre culturel et éthique mais aussi en matière d'allocation des ressources. Alors que progressent sans cesse dans les armées le développement des réseaux, la numérisation et l'intelligence artificielle, les nouvelles technologies semblent toutefois offrir un terrain fertile à un renouveau des opérations de déception. Bien employées, celles-ci permettraient de nuancer la fin du confort opératif prédit aux forces occidentales et d'éviter l'avènement d'un nouveau blocage tactique.
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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, June 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Often associated with cunning and stratagems, deception operations are as old as warfare while frequently neglected, whether at the strategic, tactical or operational levels. Its main methods are concealment, simulation and intoxication, all of which help to deceive the enemy and make him believe in an illusion aimed at causing his loss. Despite its proven effectiveness, this practice is not without cultural, ethical as well as resource allocation dilemmas. Modern armed forces are witnessing the constant upgrading of information networks, digitization and the development of artificial intelligence. These new technologies seem to provide a fertile ground for a renewal of deception operations. If well used, the latter would help mitigate the "end of the operational comfort" (i.e. the end of the material, technological and strategic superiority allowing western powers to deploy their forces without encountering major hindrances nor strong resistance from the enemy) predicted to Western forces and prevent a new tactical blockage.
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Number of pages: 
60
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The rise of offshore wind power in the North Sea

Title Original Language: 
L'essor de l'éolien offshore en Mer du Nord
Abstract Original Language: 
Les acteurs industriels européens ont su préserver le marché de l'éolien offshore pour leurs produit et services. Le savoir-faire ainsi acquis les place en bonne position sur ce marché, dont le potentiel paraît immense. Cependant, la compétition ne fait que débuter et de nombreux groupes extra-européens ont déjà pris des parts dans des projets en Mer du Nord, acquérant à leurs tours les compétences nécessaires pour essaimer sur d'autres rivages.
Autour de la Mer du Nord, les politiques de soutien à ce secteur ont évolué vers des procédures concurrentielles, notamment par des appels d'offre. Jointe à une maîtrise technologique croissante, cette démarche a abouti à une remarquable baisse des coûts pour les projets annoncés après 2018, dans les pays déjà équipés. La compétitivité ainsi accrue de l'éolien offshore offre des perspectives considérables en Mer du Nord. Hélas, elle bute encore sur les coûts d'extension du réseau électrique. A l'heure où chaque Etat mène sa propre politique énergétique, la coordination interétatique est indispensable pour minimiser les coûts d'exploitation de cette ressource.
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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, July 16, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Over the past years, European industry players have acquired a significant know-how that they can value on the promising global offshore wind market. Yet, competition is still at an early stage and many non-European stakeholders have taken shares in projects in the North Sea, hoping to gain similar expertise before wandering to other shores. Support policies have recently moved to competitive tenders ad, combined with a growing technological lead, the have contributed to a remarkable fall in prices announced for projects to be commissioned after 2018. Offshore wind represents a strategic opportunity for Europe but requires strong investments in grid infrastructures. While each national government is currently defining its own targets and support schemes, cross-border coordination is imperative to guarantee the integration of massive wind production at minimal cost.
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46
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EU agencies on the move: challenges ahead

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, January 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
EU agencies are clearly ‘on the move’: they both are increasingly proliferating and obtaining more and more discretionary powers. Yet, both the mushrooming of EU agencies and the increasingly broad powers that are conferred upon them raise questions regarding their constitutionality, their legal basis, the powers that can be delegated to them as well as the very reason for the existence of EU agencies, their independence and accountability. This paper will critically analyse these issues.
It will first discuss the evolution of agencies in the EU’s institutional setting (section 2). Subsequently, it will examine the legal concerns that arise with increased reliance on EU agencies: their position in the
constitutional framework, their legal basis and delegation of powers to them (section 3). It will then examine their independence and accountability (section 4). In conclusion, it will highlight remaining challenges that arise from resorting to EU agencies (section 5).
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54
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The Future of the Economic and Monetary Union

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, June 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
While there is general agreement within the euro zone that further reform is needed, there is however disagreement as to which measures should be implemented. In a nutshell, member states disagree over the balance between risk sharing and risk reduction. Risk reduction proponents place the emphasis on crisis prevention, while those who emphasise risk sharing focus on crisis mitigation. This book represents a concerted effort by four prominent scholars from France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands to summarise the discussion in those countries and analyse in which areas the member states may find common ground to press ahead with reforms. The authors have been asked to provide a background to how the euro has been perceived in their respective countries and identify which EMU reforms would be acceptable in the short- to medium-term perspective.
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90
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Europe and the Sahel-Maghreb Crisis

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, March 2, 2018
Abstract in English: 
This report analyses the reasons for European policy-makers coming to perceive the Sahel as a threat to Europe’s own security and stability. It starts by presenting the most recent developments in the Sahel and Maghreb regions in respect of the two most significant threats to European security and stability: trans-national jihadism and cross-border migration. The report provides in-depth analysis of a series of the most important factors that are driving the increases in jihadism and migration, including the persistence of state weakness in the Sahel, the collapse of the state in Libya and the failure of regional collaboration. Furthermore, the report analyses the most significant developments in the international community’s responses to the most recent conflicts and crises in the Sahel and Maghreb, including the foreign policies of France, which remains the single most important foreign actor in the Sahel, the European Union and Denmark. The report closes with a series of suggestions regarding how the European powers, especially Denmark, might adjust their policies in order to increase the likelihood of long-term peace and stability being generated in the region.
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64
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Lobbying In Europe

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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Sunday, March 15, 2015
Abstract in English: 
This report examines the practice of lobbying and the attempts to regulate it in 19 European countries and within the three core EU institutions.
It compiles the results of national level studies examining how lobbying manifests itself across Europe and the quality of responses by both governments and the EU institutions to the risks and realities of undue influence in public decision-making. It is the first time that such a holistic and comparable assessment has been carried out.
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68
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