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Innovation

Digitally-enabled automation and artificial intelligence: Shaping the future of work in Europe’s digital front-runners

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, October 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Technology in many ways is perfectly conceived to operate in the workplace, bringing an ability to operate around the clock at increasing levels of accuracy and productivity. Since the Industrial Revolution, machines have been the ideal colleague, performing some of the most mind-numbing tasks and freeing up human partners to do more interesting and productive things. However, in the near future, new digital technologies are set to take the next step, graduating from the factory floor to the boardroom and applying themselves to more complex, cognitive activities. Technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) are a game changer for automation in the workplace. Like ambitious young go-getters, they promise to take on more responsibility and make better decisions, and the implications for workers, companies, and policy makers are significant and pressing.
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72
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State of play of connected and automated driving and future challenges and opportunities for Europe's Cities and Regions

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, November 9, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Transportation, connectivity, accessibility, mobility – many terms point at a range of different perspectives on the phenomenon of transport. Mobility is essentially a basic human need and in economic terms transport infrastructure has to be considered as a conditio sine qua non for any kind of activity. In the past decade the so-called digital revolution has started to pervade road as well as rail transport meaning an increasing use of digital technologies in vehicle technology and – on the part of infrastructure – in traffic management, control and information systems.
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45
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The Future of EU ATM Markets

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, October 5, 2018
Abstract in English: 
ATMs constitute a critical component in today’s infrastructure for facilitating cash payments. However, ongoing digitalisation (cashless payments, e-commerce and online banking) is challenging the role of ATMs and putting pressure on the cash infrastructure in the EU. The shift from cash to cashless payments reduces the need for cash withdrawals and the rise of online banking challenges the bank branch as the traditionally most prevalent location for ATMs. Moreover, the introduction of pricing policies might also change the dynamics in EU ATM markets. Transparency and price caps on the so-called dynamic currency conversion (DCC) as well as potential reductions in interchange fees will put pressure on the revenues of certain ATMs.
Against this background, this report assesses the sensitivity of EU ATM markets to ongoing digitalisation and pricing policies. The impact of these developments is assessed across business models in Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden, which are representative of the ATM markets in all EU member states.
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135
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Strengthening the EU’s Cyber Defence Capabilities

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, November 26, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Cyber defence is critical to both the EU’s prosperity and security. Yet, the threat space it faces is vast in scope, highly interconnected, deeply complex, and rapidly evolving. The EU’s current cyber defence capacity remains fragmented across and siloed within various institutions, agencies. In order to secure its own use of cyberspace, the EU must be bold. The CEPS Task Force on Strengthening the EU's Cyber Defence Capabilities identified a clear EU-wide interest for greater coordination and cooperation in this space. After a comparative analysis of alternative scenarios, the Task Force concluded in favour of creating an EU Cyber Defence Agency with executive competencies and therefore, the ability to develop and utilise strategic and operational capabilities at the EU level. This would mark a critical step towards a more effective and collaborative approach to enhancing cyber security and resilience in the EU.
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88
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Can Blockchain revolutionize international trade?

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, January 12, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Trade has always been shaped by technological innovation. In recent times, a new technology – Blockchain – has been greeted by many as the next big game-changer. This publication explores the question of whether Blockchain may revolutionize international trade.
Opening with an explanation of the technology, the publication goes on to analyse the relevance of this technology for international trade by reviewing how it is currently used and how it may potentially be used in the various areas covered by WTO rules. In doing so, it offers insights into the extent to which this technology could affect cross-border trade in goods and services and in intellectual property rights.
The publication also discusses the potential of Blockchain for reducing trade costs and enhancing supply chain transparency, as well as the opportunities it provides for small-scale producers and companies. It concludes with a review of various challenges that must be addressed before the technology can be used on a wide scale and have a significant impact on international trade.
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163
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IBM Security: Future of Identity Study - Consumer perspectives on authentication: Moving beyond the password

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, January 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
The concept of granting digital access to users based on proper identification has been the very core of how people access online services since the emergence of the public internet in the 1980s. The power of confirming an identity and being granted access to services of value has attracted billions of users to the internet, and as society moved to this parallel universe, so have other parts of it, namely fraudsters, con men and organized crime. In the past six years, USD 112 billion has been stolen through identity fraud, equating to USD 35,600 lost every minute. The more services are offered to the general public—with additional features for convenience and usability that rely on the internet—the wider the window of opportunity for attackers. Javelin Strategy Research expects fraud related to the creation of new online accounts to rise as much as 44 percent by 2018, increasing losses from USD 5 billion to USD 8 billion in a matter of four years. While consumer personal information has been compromised on an ongoing basis for years, the massive data breaches of 2017 removed all doubt: Criminals clearly have access to the very information that many banks, companies and other businesses use to grant their users remote access to services. Even social security numbers, which are considered highly private and sensitive personal information, were exposed for hundreds of millions of consumers in 2017. Recent data breaches have been a resounding wake-up call to the fact that new methods are needed to validate our identities online. In an era where personal information is no longer private, and passwords are commonly reused, stolen or cracked with various tools, the traditional scheme of accessing data and services by username and password has repeatedly shown to be inadequate.
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27
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Insurance 2025 - Reducing risk in an uncertain future

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Wednesday, March 15, 2017
Abstract in English: 
This report is based on a series of insurance and CxO studies conducted by the IBM Institute for Business Value over the past few years, in combination with a number of informal conversations and discussions with subject matter experts and insurance executives. We look at two key technology waves — cognitive computing and systems decentralization — that will have significant impact on the future of business across industries and that will affect insurance companies and their customers. However, considerable uncertainty surrounds their adoption pattern, and so we will consider scenario planning regarding the various potential outcomes of these two waves:
1.How will cognitive technologies be deployed — as utilities or as proprietary tools?
2.Will operations and decision-making happen on “the edge” in distributed models, or centrally in common processes?
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24
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The Digital World in 2025 - Indicators for European Action

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, September 15, 2009
Abstract in English: 
2025 may seem like a long way off. The pressing issues of today necessarily preoccupy European leaderships. But consider this reality: youngsters who are 10 years old today (2009) will be entering the prime of life by 2025. Many millions of 10-year-olds in Europe and around the world are already “digital natives” – born and raised in a world of digital communications. Behind them will come wave upon wave of youngsters, particularly in today’s young emerging societies and economies, with increasing numbers growing up with ever-more powerful digital tools. Indeed, given current trends any distinction between “the digital world” and any other worlds will have become largely academic by 2025. Over the past 15 years digital communications have already transformed the way ever-increasing numbers of us behave individually and collectively in our working and social lives. But this is just the beginning as the pace of change itself accelerates.
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36
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Re-launching Transatlantic Partnership 2020 - The Digital Dimension

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Thursday, February 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Accelerating digital transformation on both sides of the Atlantic and around the world has unquestionably become the single most powerful underlying driver of change across our societies and economies. No community, no sector, no sphere of human endeavour is immune, and there is no opting out. Moreover, we are just at the beginning of the real-world digital revolution. There can therefore be no decisive progress toward a fully functioning XXIst century partnership between the United States and Europe (of the sort first envisioned by TPN 25 years ago) without a common - or at least interoperable - “digital transformation” policy framework.
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13
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EIB Working Papers 2018/07 - Young SMEs: Driving Innovation in Europe?

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, September 21, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Using large scale EIB Investment Survey evidence for 2016 covering 8,900 non-financial firms from all size and age classes across all sectors and all EU Member States, we identify different innovation profiles based on a firm’s R&D investment and/or innovation activities. We find that “basic” firms – i.e. firms that do not engage in any type of R&D or innovation – are more common among young SMEs, while innovators –i.e. firms that do R&D and introduce new products, processes or services- are more often old and large firms. This hold particularly for “leading innovators”, ie those introducing innovations new to the market. To further explore why young SMEs are not more active in innovation, we explore their access to finance. We confirm that young small leading innovators are the most likely to be credit constrained. Grants seem to at least partly addressing the external financing access problem for leading innovators, but not for young SMEs.
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26
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