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Space

European Space Programs and the Digital Challenge

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Wednesday, November 15, 2017
Abstract in English: 
The progress made in space exploration and digital technology have long been dis-synchronized. This is no longer the case- space programs are now both an actor of the digital revolution, since most of the data are being communicated through satellites, and themselves revolutionized.
The point of this study is to understand the tremendous changes affecting this sector, through the inclusion of new technologies and new actors, and to outline a way for Europe to remain an independent and strong actor in the space exploration sector- which is key to remain a credible global power.
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138
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Escalation and Deterrence in the Second Space Age

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, October 3, 2017
Abstract in English: 
On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first human-made object to orbit the Earth. Precisely 60 years later, space-faring nations face a much different space environment; one that’s more diverse, disruptive, disordered, and dangerous. Today’s space domain presents a number of asymmetries that differ from other domains, creating a specific deterrence environment with unique policy implications.

Escalation and Deterrence in the Second Space Age, a new report by the CSIS Aerospace Security Project, discusses the evolution of space as a contested domain, the changing threats to U.S. space systems, deterrence theory and its applications to the space domain, and findings from a space crisis exercise administered by CSIS last year.
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92
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Space, the Final Frontier for Cybersecurity?

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Thursday, September 22, 2016
Abstract in English: 
The vulnerability of satellites and other space assets to cyberattack is often overlooked in wider discussions of cyberthreats to critical national infrastructure. This is a significant failing, given society’s substantial and ever increasing reliance on satellite technologies for navigation, communications, remote sensing, monitoring and the myriad associated applications. Vulnerabilities at the junction of space-based or space-derived capability with cybersecurity cause major national, regional and international security concerns, yet are going unaddressed, apart from in some ‘high end’ space-based systems. Analysing the intersection between cyber and space security is essential to understanding this non-traditional, evolving security threat.
Cybersecurity and space security are inextricably linked. Technologies in satellites and other space assets are sourced from a broad international supply base and therefore require regular security upgrades. And the upgrades via remote connections could serve to make space assets vulnerable to cyberattacks. In everyday life, satellites are regularly used to provide internet services and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technologies which are increasingly embedded in almost all critical infrastructure.
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46
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Chinese Space Strategy and Developments

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, August 19, 2016
Abstract in English: 
Competition in space is not a new phenomenon. The Space Race between the Soviet Union and United States was one of the defining aspects of the Cold War era. While astronauts are no longer national celebrities and media coverage has greatly diminished, competition in space remains fierce. The United States, China, Russia, Europe, and numerous others all seek to use outer space in a way that best forwards national interest.

China, in particular, has substantially increased its outer space efforts and capabilities in the post-Cold War era. China’s 2015 Defense White Paper refers to space as the “commanding height in international strategic competition”, and its commitment to active programs further underlines this strategic development. China already possesses advanced space-based C4ISR capabilities, a growing fleet of modern launch vehicles, the BeiDou satellite navigation program comparable to U.S. GPS, an array of counterspace and ASAT weapons (kinetic-kill, directed-energy, co-orbital, and cyber), and an advanced manned space program.
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33
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Space security for Europe

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Thursday, July 7, 2016
Abstract in English: 
This Report is the outcome of an EUISS Task Force on ‘Space and Security’ which convened from September 2015 until June 2016. It has three main objectives. First, it analyses potential threats to critical European space infrastructure, (including cyber attacks), and evaluates possible responses.

Second, it assesses the main space security considerations for the EU – as a satellite owner, facilitator for European cooperation, and diplomatic actor. Third, it offers ideas for improving European strategic thinking on space security, with the goals of improving space system resilience, reducing external dependence, and ensuring a secure and sustainable environment for outer space activities.
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102
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Investing in European success - A Decade of Success in Earth Observation Research and Innovation

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, December 4, 2015
Abstract in English: 
Earth observation data and information are vital to allow decision-makers and society in general to take informed decisions about climate, energy, food security, natural hazards, health and other societal challenges. These challenges are complex, interrelated, cross-border in nature and interdependent at the global scale and therefore coordination is essential to avoid duplication of efforts and reduce observational gaps.

The European Commission together with 27 EU Member States are active members of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), which provides a global voluntary framework where governments and participating organisations can coordinate their strategies and investments in the field of Earth observation while promoting full and open access to data and information through the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

This booklet provides a snapshot of EU-funded projects which illustrate how European research and innovation contribute to this global initiative, showcasing the potential of international collaboration in science for diplomacy.
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Recommendations to avoid a strategic downgrading of Europe in the field of Combat Aviation

Title Original Language: 
Recommandations pour éviter un déclassement stratégique de l’Europe dans le domaine de L’Aviation de combat
Abstract Original Language: 
L’Académie de l’air et de l’espace (AAE), observant, au travers des nombreux exemples récents, qu’aucun conflit ne peut désormais plus se passer d’une aviation de combat performante, considère que l’Europe court le risque de perdre l’avance et l’indépendance de sa puissance aérienne alors que l’industrie d’aviation de combat est le moteur de la haute technologie et des emplois de haut niveau.
Comment faire pour éviter cette mort annoncée face à une concurrence internationale de plus en plus vive ? Comment protéger la base industrielle solide qui existe encore aujourd’hui mais qui nécessite d’être entretenue par des projets concrets de démonstrateurs et de développements européens ?
Si l’Europe souhaite conserver son indépendance stratégique dans les systèmes aériens de défense et ainsi conserver son rang dans le monde multipolaire de demain, des décisions importantes doivent être prises et financées rapidement.
Original Language: 
Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Saturday, November 16, 2013
Abstract in English: 
The Air and Space Academy having noted, through a study of the many recent examples, that air warfare scenarios without advanced combat aircraft are no longer feasible, considers that Europe is running the risk of losing its advanced air power independence, in spite of the fact that the combat aircraft industry is a driving force for advanced technologies and qualified employment.
How to avoid this imminent demise, faced with stiffer and stiffer international competition? How to protect the strong industrial base which still exists today but which must be maintained through concrete demonstrators and European development
programmes?
If Europe wishes to secure its future strategic air power independence and thus maintain its place in the newly emerging multipolar world, urgent action must be decided on and funded.
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13
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A Multiverse of Exploration: The Future of Science 2021

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Thursday, December 1, 2011
Abstract in English: 
Invisibility cloaks. The search for extraterrestrial intelligence. A Facebook for genes. These were just a few of the startling topics IFTF explored at its Technology Horizons Program conference in on the “Future of Science.” More than a dozen scientists from UC Berkeley, Stanford, UC Santa Cruz, Scripps Research Institute, SETI, and private industry shared their edgiest research driving transformations in science.
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7
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Preparing the Commission for future opportunities

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, April 13, 2015
Abstract in English: 
At a time when the new European Commission announced that it will concentrate on bold initiatives, it is important to recall that any policy decision has complex ramifications. Indeed, an increasing number of decisions affect several policy portfolios, and they need to take into account an increasing number of parameters, like geopolitics, economics, finance, security, health, environment, climate change, sociology, urbanisation, ageing society, and integrate fundamental European social values such gender equality and ethics. In addition, the technological breakthroughs are accelerating as never be-fore in history and social innovation (e.g. social media) augments the speed of information gathering and dissemination.
Because societies become ever more complex, collaborative long-term anticipation must replace the "silo" thinking habits and the short-termism that has characterised many aspects of policy-making in Europe.
Foreseeing is not sufficient anymore because it is only a tactical extrapolation of current trends; it is the future of the past. Foresighting however is strategic because it is based on more disruptive views; it is about the future of the future.
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201
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VISION 2025 - A World of Opportunities for UK Space Technology

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, June 1, 2007
Abstract in English: 
UK Space Vision 2025 is a glimpse of what a space enabled world may look like in 2025, what it will mean for UK’s economy, for UK’s Government, and for consumers, families and citizens. It was inspired by the recommendation of various stakeholders and presents a forward vision of a space enabled world and the benefits to the UK of maintaining its lead role in Space.
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28
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