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Technology

Unlocking the potential of the Internet of Things

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, June 12, 2015
Abstract in English: 
The Internet of Things—sensors and actuators connected by networks to computing systems—has received enormous attention over the past five years. A new McKinsey Global Institute report, The Internet of Things: Mapping the value beyond the hype, attempts to determine exactly how IoT technology can create real economic value.

Our central finding is that the hype may actually understate the full potential—but that capturing it will require an understanding of where real value can be created and a successful effort to address a set of systems issues, including interoperability.

To get a broader view of the IoT’s potential benefits and challenges across the global economy, we analyzed more than 150 use cases, ranging from people whose devices monitor health and wellness to manufacturers that utilize sensors to optimize the maintenance of equipment and protect the safety of workers. Our bottom-up analysis for the applications we size estimates that the IoT has a total potential economic impact of $3.9 trillion to $11.1 trillion a year by 2025. At the top end, that level of value—including the consumer surplus—would be equivalent to about 11 percent of the world economy.
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144
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Horizon 2020 - Investing in European success

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, May 8, 2015
Abstract in English: 
Horizon 2020 has a single overarching objective: the achievement of scientific, technological and societal impact based on excellent research and innovation projects. It aims to achieve economic impact by supporting industrial competitiveness, economic growth and job creation. It aims to achieve societal impact by developing the means to respond effectively, quickly and efficiently to the urgent societal challenges (climate change, loss of biodiversity, ageing, etc.) Europe is faced with.

This brochure, which presents examples of research and innovation projects funded through past EU programmes and constitutes a record of impact, shows that the ambitious goals set for Horizon 2020 are fully justified.

From 2014 to 2020, Horizon 2020 brings all EU research and innovation funding together under a single programme with three key objectives:

- Excellent Science: Strengthening the EU’s position as world leader in science and attracting the best talents to work together across Europe;
- Competitive Industries: Strengthening industrial leadership in innovation to get Europe back on the path to growth and job creation;
- Better Society: Innovating to tackle societal challenges shared by all Europeans, across seven key themes: Health, demographic change and well-being; Food security, sustainable agriculture, marine and maritime and inland water research and the bio-economy; Secure, clean and efficient energy; Smart, green and integrated transport; Climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials; Europe in a changing world -inclusive, innovative and reflective societies; and Secure societies – protecting the freedom and security of Europe and its citizens
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Flying by numbers: Global Market Forecast for 2015-2034

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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, December 1, 2015
Abstract in English: 
Airbus’ Global Market Forecast for 2015-2034 offers a forward-looking view of the air transport sector’s evolution – accounting for factors such as demographic and economic growth, tourism trends, oil prices, development of new and existing routes, and ultimately highlighting demand for aircraft covering the full spectrum of sizes from 100 seats to the very largest aircraft like the A380.

Entitled “Flying by numbers” this new forecast – which serves as a reference for airlines, airports, investors, governments, non-government agencies and others – anticipates that air traffic will grow at 4.6 per cent annually, requiring some 32,600 new passenger and dedicated freighter aircraft at a value of US$4.9 trillion.
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69
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Global System on the Brink: Pathways toward a New Normal

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Wednesday, December 2, 2015
Abstract in English: 
“Global System on the Brink: Pathways toward a New Normal” is a joint study by the Atlantic Council’s Strategic Foresight Initiative and the Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO). Work on this joint assessment of global trends began before the onset of the recent crisis in US-Russian relations, but is more relevant than ever today as we seek to avoid a greater conflict and achieve a new normal of cooperation between Russia and the West. In keeping with previous forecasting works published by the Atlantic Council and the IMEMO, the study examines current trends and potential scenarios for global developments over the next twenty years.

Despite the rapid globalization of the past few decades, which promised cooperation and integration, the potential for major state conflict is on the rise due to deep fragmentation within and between societies. The old confrontation between capitalism and communism has given way to conflicts of moral values with nationalist, religious, and historical-psychological overtones. The worst outcome would be the emergence of a new bipolarity, pitting a group of states centered around China and Russia against the United States and some European and Asian allies. However serious the current situation, the study emphasizes the opportunities for narrowing differences.
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22
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First Steps towards a Multidimensional Autonomy Risk Assessment (MARA) in Weapons Systems

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Saturday, December 5, 2015
Abstract in English: 
The purpose of – and the motivation be-hind – this study is to move the debate on autonomy in weapons systems ahead by introducing some more conceptual clarity and definitional rigor. To that end, we offer a new instrument for conducting a multidimensional autonomy risk assessment (MARA) in weapons systems. By quantifying and computing key descriptive characteristics (“vectors”) of systems to gauge their autonomous and military capabilities, the instrument can be used to generate a comprehensive overview over weapons systems deployed currently and in the near future. This way, it can assist policy-makers in coming to an informed decision on the possible establishment of a politically defined maximum of autonomy in weapons systems.
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Technology, globalisation and the future of work in Europe: Essays on employment in a digitised economy

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, March 10, 2015
Abstract in English: 
The industrial structure of European economies and the types of occupation that they support are changing. This change takes many forms in different national contexts, but there are some common themes. There has been an increase in service-sector employment, both in low-skilled customer service work and in high-skilled ‘knowledge’ occupations, and a corresponding drop in manufacturing employment. This has contributed to a ‘polarisation’ of the workforce in many countries, with more high-skill and low-skill jobs but fewer requiring mid-level skills. At the same time, young people are finding it increasingly hard to get a foothold in the labour market, and the proportion of the workforce employed on full-time, permanent contracts has shrunk.

Some of the changes are cyclical, the result of recession followed by a stuttering recovery. The rise in temporary work, for example, might be expected to recede when European economies are again growing strongly enough to bring unemployment down towards its pre-recession level. Other changes, however, are the result of major structural forces operating in the global economy: the rapid pace of technological innovation, globalisation and demographic change. These forces are likely to continue to cause dislocation and disruption in European labour markets for the foreseeable future. As a result, there will be a fundamental shift in the types of jobs that are available for workers and in the skills demanded by employers across Europe. Understanding the likely changes in the European labour market over the next decade is essential if policymakers and firms are to set Europe onto a path towards permanently lower unemployment through the creation of many more well-paid jobs.
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124
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Present and Future of Civilian Drones

Title Original Language: 
Présent et futur des drones civils
Abstract Original Language: 
L’Académie de l’air et de l’espace (AAE) et l’Association aéronautique et astronautique de France (3AF) s’efforcent de focaliser leur attention et leurs réflexions sur des sujets qui leur semblent importants en matière de développement innovant des activités dans l’air et dans l’espace.
Ainsi les progrès technologiques permettent-ils aujourd’hui de concevoir et réaliser des aéronefs sans équipage à bord. Dans le domaine militaire, on assiste depuis des décennies au développement et à l’utilisation opérationnelle de drones de reconnaissance et même, plus récemment, de drones armés. Dans le secteur des drones civils, dont le développement est beaucoup plus récent, le foisonnement des idées est très impressionnant, accompagné d’une montée exponentielle du nombre d’opérateurs et de drones en opération. Les technologies permettent de réaliser des drones de petite taille dont les coûts d’acquisition et d’exploitation sont faibles. Émerge ainsi un marché de services proposés bien souvent par de jeunes entreprises innovantes. Les maires de nos villes et villages achètent des vues aériennes de leur territoire. Les agriculteurs peuvent surveiller leurs cultures, et définir les traitements appropriés. Les propriétaires d’infrastructures comme EDF, SNCF, GRT Gaz envisagent une utilisation de plus en plus intensive des drones pour inspecter les voies, les lignes, les viaducs, souvent difficiles d’accès. Après la télévision, depuis plusieurs années déjà grande utilisatrice de drones, le cinéma à son tour commence à utiliser ces systèmes innovants.
Cette multiplication des applications des drones pourrait représenter un danger potentiel pour les personnes et les biens et rendre difficile leur intégration dans un espace aérien déjà très encombré.
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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, September 1, 2015
Abstract in English: 
The Air and Space Academy (AAE) and the Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France (French Aerospace Society, 3AF) endeavour to focus their attention and reflections on important issues linked to innovative development activities in air and space.
Today, for instance, technological progress has led to the design and manufacture of unmanned aircraft. In the military field, recent decades have witnessed the development and operational use of Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) or Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for Intelligence/Surveillance/Reconnaissance missions and even more recently, for weapon delivery. In the more recent civilian drone sector, the explosion of ideas has been impressive, with an exponential rise in the number of drone operators and missions. We now have the technological capacity to produce small RPAS that are cheap to buy and to run. This is inspiring a services market, often proposed by innovative young companies. The mayors of our cities and towns are purchasing aerial views of their area. Farmers can monitor their crops and define appropriate treatments. Infrastructure owners such as EDF, SNCF and GRT Gaz are envisaging using drones in an increasingly intensive way to inspect tracks, lines and bridges that are often difficult to access. For several years, television has been a major user of drones and now filmmakers are also starting to use these innovative systems.
This proliferation of drone applications may represent a potential hazard to people and goods and makes their integration into an already congested airspace very complicated.
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76
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Recommendations to avoid a strategic downgrading of Europe in the field of Combat Aviation

Title Original Language: 
Recommandations pour éviter un déclassement stratégique de l’Europe dans le domaine de L’Aviation de combat
Abstract Original Language: 
L’Académie de l’air et de l’espace (AAE), observant, au travers des nombreux exemples récents, qu’aucun conflit ne peut désormais plus se passer d’une aviation de combat performante, considère que l’Europe court le risque de perdre l’avance et l’indépendance de sa puissance aérienne alors que l’industrie d’aviation de combat est le moteur de la haute technologie et des emplois de haut niveau.
Comment faire pour éviter cette mort annoncée face à une concurrence internationale de plus en plus vive ? Comment protéger la base industrielle solide qui existe encore aujourd’hui mais qui nécessite d’être entretenue par des projets concrets de démonstrateurs et de développements européens ?
Si l’Europe souhaite conserver son indépendance stratégique dans les systèmes aériens de défense et ainsi conserver son rang dans le monde multipolaire de demain, des décisions importantes doivent être prises et financées rapidement.
Original Language: 
Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Saturday, November 16, 2013
Abstract in English: 
The Air and Space Academy having noted, through a study of the many recent examples, that air warfare scenarios without advanced combat aircraft are no longer feasible, considers that Europe is running the risk of losing its advanced air power independence, in spite of the fact that the combat aircraft industry is a driving force for advanced technologies and qualified employment.
How to avoid this imminent demise, faced with stiffer and stiffer international competition? How to protect the strong industrial base which still exists today but which must be maintained through concrete demonstrators and European development
programmes?
If Europe wishes to secure its future strategic air power independence and thus maintain its place in the newly emerging multipolar world, urgent action must be decided on and funded.
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13
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The BBC’s future: Charter renewal and beyond

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, November 30, 2015
Abstract in English: 
As the renewal of its royal charter approaches, this essay collection offers a diverse array of views on how the BBC can be reformed and renewed as a democratic, public institution that enriches the modern media landscape and rises to new challenges.

A popular national institution that shapes and sustains core elements of our public culture, the BBC enriches the UK, and gives us influence and prestige around the world. But there are also more utilitarian justifications for it: with the licence fee costing 40p a day, the BBC is great value for money, and is the bedrock of our economically dynamic creative sectors.

That is not to say, however, that the BBC can stand still while all around it changes, or that it does not need to be reformed in order to address its inefficiencies and inadequacies, as well as its vulnerabilities.

As the broadcaster approaches the renewal of its royal charter in 2016, this collection of essays addresses the modernisation as well as conservation of the BBC. Discussing issues of competition, governance, transparency, plurality, regulation, decentralisation and, of course, the future of the licence fee, the authors examine the BBC and the wider context in which it operates from a rich variety of viewpoints. As it approaches its centenary, we offer ideas for how the Beeb can be reformed and renewed as a democratic, public institution that serves the UK of the 21st century just as well as it did that of the 20th.
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190
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Japan's Security Role and Capabilities in the 2020s

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, November 13, 2015
Abstract in English: 
Security challenges in East Asia are becoming acute. North Korea is developing a missile-deliverable nuclear weapon, and the long-term stability of the Pyongyang regime is questionable. Taiwan, which Beijing claims as part of Chinese territory, is about to have a presidential election in which a candidate from a pro-independence party is the front-runner. China has also become increasingly assertive in its territorial disputes with Japan and several Southeast Asian countries. Meanwhile, Japan's leaders are attempting to redefine the role Japan plays in regional security affairs. Indeed, Japan's legislature recently enacted revisions to the country's national security laws that would loosen limitations on the use of Japan's armed forces, and the government of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has pledged to increase defense spending
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40
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