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Technology

Skill Shift: Automation an the Future of the Workforce

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, May 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Automation and artificial intelligence (AI) are changing the nature of work. In this discussion paper, part of our ongoing research on the impact of technology on the economy, business, and society, we present new findings on the coming shifts in demand for workforce skills and how work is organized within companies, as people increasingly interact with machines in the workplace. We quantify time spent on 25 core workplace skills today and in the future for the United States and five European countries, with a particular focus on five sectors: banking and insurance, energy and mining, healthcare, manufacturing, and retail.
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84
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The new dynamics of financial globalisation

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, August 29, 2017
Abstract in English: 
A decade after the beginning of the global financial crisis, the fallout continues to reshape the financial system. Gross cross-border capital flows are 65 percent lower in absolute terms than they were in 2007, representing a sharp break from the past. Roughly half of the decline is due to large European and US banks retrenching from foreign markets. But these developments do not signal an end to financial globalization—although there will be risks. Rather, we see a healthy correction from pre-crisis excesses, and a return to a potentially more stable and risk-sensitive era of financial globalization. Lessons have been learned. Moreover, we are beginning to see global finance broaden to a larger number of countries and players, many of them developing economies that are becoming more financially connected. Looking forward, we see that global finance is set for another major disruption. The increasing presence of new financial technologies, including digital platforms for financial transactions, blockchain, and machine learning, have the potential to reinforce financial globalization by making it faster and cheaper to transact across borders—but may also pose new challenges.
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108
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IMF Fiscal Monitor: Capitalizing on Good Times

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Sunday, April 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
The April 2018 edition of Fiscal Monitor is focused on two broad themes: the burden of high global debt and the opportunities and challenges of digital government.
Chapter 1 explores how strong and broad-based growth provides an opportunity to rebuild fiscal buffers now, improve government balances, and anchor public debt.
Chapter 2 discusses how digitalization presents opportunities and challenges for fiscal policy and the ways in which it can change how governments design and implement current and future policies. The chapter also discusses how digitalization can positively transform governments by improving tax policy and administration, increasing spending efficiency and enhancing fiscal management.
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156
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World Trade Report 2017

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Sunday, January 15, 2017
Abstract in English: 
The World Trade Report is an annual publication that aims to deepen understanding about trends in trade, trade policy issues and the multilateral trading system.
The 2017 World Trade Report examines how technology and trade affect employment and wages. It analyses the challenges for workers and firms in adjusting to changes in labour markets, and how governments can facilitate such adjustment to increase the positive impact of open trade and technological progress.
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190
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Decarbonisation of heat in Europe: implications for natural gas demand

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Thursday, May 24, 2018
Abstract in English: 
The EU has so far mostly focused on the electricity sector to reduce her greenhouse gas emissions. To meet its target, though, Europe will have to focus on other sectors, such as heating and cooling. The latter is Europe's single largest energy consumer, covering half of Europe's energy demand. 42% of Europe's current energy supply comes from natural gas. Therefore, the gas industry needs to understand the implications of the decarbonisation of the heating and cooling sector on natural gas demand.
However, the role of those sectors in the natural gas demand is still not properly understood. This paper tries to fill this vacuum by studying the heating and cooling sector in Europe, with a special focus on the implications for the gas industry, especially for the natural gas demand.
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64
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Weeding Out Fake News

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, July 11, 2017
Abstract in English: 
Social media are becoming the dominant source of information for significant parts of our societies. There are numerous positive aspects of these media, such as their ability to mobilise for a political cause. Yet at the same time, social media may sometimes negatively impact the public debate. This paper analyses how social media platforms influence democracy in Western countries and makes recommendations on how to address the risks that arise effectively.
Short-term solutions to eradicate fake news include considering social media platforms as full-fledged media companies-thus regulating them through a revised version of press laws which suits new technologies.
The key long-term solution is developing e-literacy among the general public.
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67
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European Space Programs and the Digital Challenge

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Wednesday, November 15, 2017
Abstract in English: 
The progress made in space exploration and digital technology have long been dis-synchronized. This is no longer the case- space programs are now both an actor of the digital revolution, since most of the data are being communicated through satellites, and themselves revolutionized.
The point of this study is to understand the tremendous changes affecting this sector, through the inclusion of new technologies and new actors, and to outline a way for Europe to remain an independent and strong actor in the space exploration sector- which is key to remain a credible global power.
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138
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Medical Data - Can the digital tsunami revolutionize our public health services ?

Title Original Language: 
Données médicales-Le tsunami numérique peut-il révolutionner nos systèmes de santé publique ?
Abstract Original Language: 
Trouver l’équilibre : voilà la tâche difficile des législateurs pour réguler l’e-santé. Les données médicales et les nouvelles technologies sont à la fois prometteuses et sensibles. Prometteuses, parce que leur utilisation massive et rapide permettra d’améliorer la qualité des soins et les coûts de notre système de santé. Sensibles, parce qu’elles posent des questions morales (e.g., la possible ré-identification du patient).
Ambition et prudence doivent donc guider la régulation de l’e-santé et, plutôt qu’une série de préconisations techniques, nous avons articulé nos recommandations autour de quatre axes stratégiques: remettre le patient au coeur de ses données médicales, poursuivre la consolidation de l’infrastructure de données médicales et en extraire toute la richesse, repenser les réglementations de développement et de
mise sur le marché des technologies de l’e-santé, renforcer la culture du numérique et des données chez les professionnels de la santé. Pour chaque axe, nous proposons plusieurs initiatives concrètes qui pourront inspirer les différentes parties prenantes de la santé et les guider dans leurs prises de décisions.
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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, June 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
When regulating the digital health services, lawmakers are confronted to a difficult challenge-finding the right balance. Medical data and new technologies are both exciting and sensitive-On the one hand, their massive usage will help improve the quality of treatments and reduce the cost of our health services. On the other, they pose moral questions (e.g. the possible re-identification of the patient).
Ambition and Care must be the guidelines for the digital health services regulation. We do not give technical recommendations, but outline our advice along four strategic axes- Put the patient back at the heart of his/her medical data, Consolidate the infrastructure of medical data and use it to its full potential, Rethinking the regulation of the development and commercialization of digital health technologies, Strengthening the digital and data culture among physicians. For each of those axes, we propose concrete initiatives which will hopefully inspire the different actors of the health sector and help them in their decision-making.
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79
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Deception operations

Abstract Original Language: 
Souvent assimilées à la ruse et aux stratagèmes, les opérations de déception sont une pratique de guerre à la fois ancienne et méconnue, tant au niveau stratégique que tactique ou opératif. Leurs principaux procédés sont la dissimulation, la simulation ou l'intoxication, qi toutes contribuent à tromper l'ennemi et lui faire croire à ne illusion qui doit causer sa perte. Malgré une efficacité maintes fois démontrée dans l'histoire, cette pratique ne va pas sans poser de dilemmes-d'ordre culturel et éthique mais aussi en matière d'allocation des ressources. Alors que progressent sans cesse dans les armées le développement des réseaux, la numérisation et l'intelligence artificielle, les nouvelles technologies semblent toutefois offrir un terrain fertile à un renouveau des opérations de déception. Bien employées, celles-ci permettraient de nuancer la fin du confort opératif prédit aux forces occidentales et d'éviter l'avènement d'un nouveau blocage tactique.
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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, June 15, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Often associated with cunning and stratagems, deception operations are as old as warfare while frequently neglected, whether at the strategic, tactical or operational levels. Its main methods are concealment, simulation and intoxication, all of which help to deceive the enemy and make him believe in an illusion aimed at causing his loss. Despite its proven effectiveness, this practice is not without cultural, ethical as well as resource allocation dilemmas. Modern armed forces are witnessing the constant upgrading of information networks, digitization and the development of artificial intelligence. These new technologies seem to provide a fertile ground for a renewal of deception operations. If well used, the latter would help mitigate the "end of the operational comfort" (i.e. the end of the material, technological and strategic superiority allowing western powers to deploy their forces without encountering major hindrances nor strong resistance from the enemy) predicted to Western forces and prevent a new tactical blockage.
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60
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The rise of offshore wind power in the North Sea

Title Original Language: 
L'essor de l'éolien offshore en Mer du Nord
Abstract Original Language: 
Les acteurs industriels européens ont su préserver le marché de l'éolien offshore pour leurs produit et services. Le savoir-faire ainsi acquis les place en bonne position sur ce marché, dont le potentiel paraît immense. Cependant, la compétition ne fait que débuter et de nombreux groupes extra-européens ont déjà pris des parts dans des projets en Mer du Nord, acquérant à leurs tours les compétences nécessaires pour essaimer sur d'autres rivages.
Autour de la Mer du Nord, les politiques de soutien à ce secteur ont évolué vers des procédures concurrentielles, notamment par des appels d'offre. Jointe à une maîtrise technologique croissante, cette démarche a abouti à une remarquable baisse des coûts pour les projets annoncés après 2018, dans les pays déjà équipés. La compétitivité ainsi accrue de l'éolien offshore offre des perspectives considérables en Mer du Nord. Hélas, elle bute encore sur les coûts d'extension du réseau électrique. A l'heure où chaque Etat mène sa propre politique énergétique, la coordination interétatique est indispensable pour minimiser les coûts d'exploitation de cette ressource.
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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, July 16, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Over the past years, European industry players have acquired a significant know-how that they can value on the promising global offshore wind market. Yet, competition is still at an early stage and many non-European stakeholders have taken shares in projects in the North Sea, hoping to gain similar expertise before wandering to other shores. Support policies have recently moved to competitive tenders ad, combined with a growing technological lead, the have contributed to a remarkable fall in prices announced for projects to be commissioned after 2018. Offshore wind represents a strategic opportunity for Europe but requires strong investments in grid infrastructures. While each national government is currently defining its own targets and support schemes, cross-border coordination is imperative to guarantee the integration of massive wind production at minimal cost.
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46
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