This synthesis report presents the main findings from a multi-year research project conducted by the ILO to assess how income support and active labour market policies (ALMPs) can come together to improve the employ-ment and life trajectories of workers, particularly in emerging and developing countries. The research question was derived from an earlier ILO project entitled “Active labour market policies in Latin America and the Caribbean”, specifically from the project’s conclusion that, while ALMPs are indeed able to improve workers’ labour market prospects, the success of such interventions hinges on their accessibility. In several cases, a critical missing piece seemed to be adequate income support, which appeared to be a prerequisite for workers in the region to participate fully in activation programmes. The purpose of the present report is thus to shed light on how approaches based on a combination of income support and active support can be used to respond effectively to contemporary labour market challenges in developing and emerging economies.The report is being issued at a time when governments are faced with the challenge of creating better quality employment opportunities in a world where rapid changes are compounding long standing labour market problems. In this respect, the report shows that the policy combinations studied can make a difference, even in the challenging context of contem-porary labour markets. The new evidence presented indicates that the joint implementation of ALMPs and income support measures, if organized properly, can achieve the dual aim of protecting workers while improving their access to decent work. Multiple policy combinations are possible, and so it is important to identify the factors that determine the success (or otherwise) of such an integrated approach, particularly in emerging and developing countries, where labour ma number of methods, including a literature review, a cross-country map-ping, a comparative macroeconomic study, and two case studies based on microeconomic impact evaluations and qualitative research.
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