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Drones

First Steps towards a Multidimensional Autonomy Risk Assessment (MARA) in Weapons Systems

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Saturday, December 5, 2015
Abstract in English: 
The purpose of – and the motivation be-hind – this study is to move the debate on autonomy in weapons systems ahead by introducing some more conceptual clarity and definitional rigor. To that end, we offer a new instrument for conducting a multidimensional autonomy risk assessment (MARA) in weapons systems. By quantifying and computing key descriptive characteristics (“vectors”) of systems to gauge their autonomous and military capabilities, the instrument can be used to generate a comprehensive overview over weapons systems deployed currently and in the near future. This way, it can assist policy-makers in coming to an informed decision on the possible establishment of a politically defined maximum of autonomy in weapons systems.
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Present and Future of Civilian Drones

Title Original Language: 
Présent et futur des drones civils
Abstract Original Language: 
L’Académie de l’air et de l’espace (AAE) et l’Association aéronautique et astronautique de France (3AF) s’efforcent de focaliser leur attention et leurs réflexions sur des sujets qui leur semblent importants en matière de développement innovant des activités dans l’air et dans l’espace.
Ainsi les progrès technologiques permettent-ils aujourd’hui de concevoir et réaliser des aéronefs sans équipage à bord. Dans le domaine militaire, on assiste depuis des décennies au développement et à l’utilisation opérationnelle de drones de reconnaissance et même, plus récemment, de drones armés. Dans le secteur des drones civils, dont le développement est beaucoup plus récent, le foisonnement des idées est très impressionnant, accompagné d’une montée exponentielle du nombre d’opérateurs et de drones en opération. Les technologies permettent de réaliser des drones de petite taille dont les coûts d’acquisition et d’exploitation sont faibles. Émerge ainsi un marché de services proposés bien souvent par de jeunes entreprises innovantes. Les maires de nos villes et villages achètent des vues aériennes de leur territoire. Les agriculteurs peuvent surveiller leurs cultures, et définir les traitements appropriés. Les propriétaires d’infrastructures comme EDF, SNCF, GRT Gaz envisagent une utilisation de plus en plus intensive des drones pour inspecter les voies, les lignes, les viaducs, souvent difficiles d’accès. Après la télévision, depuis plusieurs années déjà grande utilisatrice de drones, le cinéma à son tour commence à utiliser ces systèmes innovants.
Cette multiplication des applications des drones pourrait représenter un danger potentiel pour les personnes et les biens et rendre difficile leur intégration dans un espace aérien déjà très encombré.
Original Language: 
Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, September 1, 2015
Abstract in English: 
The Air and Space Academy (AAE) and the Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France (French Aerospace Society, 3AF) endeavour to focus their attention and reflections on important issues linked to innovative development activities in air and space.
Today, for instance, technological progress has led to the design and manufacture of unmanned aircraft. In the military field, recent decades have witnessed the development and operational use of Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) or Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for Intelligence/Surveillance/Reconnaissance missions and even more recently, for weapon delivery. In the more recent civilian drone sector, the explosion of ideas has been impressive, with an exponential rise in the number of drone operators and missions. We now have the technological capacity to produce small RPAS that are cheap to buy and to run. This is inspiring a services market, often proposed by innovative young companies. The mayors of our cities and towns are purchasing aerial views of their area. Farmers can monitor their crops and define appropriate treatments. Infrastructure owners such as EDF, SNCF and GRT Gaz are envisaging using drones in an increasingly intensive way to inspect tracks, lines and bridges that are often difficult to access. For several years, television has been a major user of drones and now filmmakers are also starting to use these innovative systems.
This proliferation of drone applications may represent a potential hazard to people and goods and makes their integration into an already congested airspace very complicated.
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76
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Preparing the Commission for future opportunities

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, April 13, 2015
Abstract in English: 
At a time when the new European Commission announced that it will concentrate on bold initiatives, it is important to recall that any policy decision has complex ramifications. Indeed, an increasing number of decisions affect several policy portfolios, and they need to take into account an increasing number of parameters, like geopolitics, economics, finance, security, health, environment, climate change, sociology, urbanisation, ageing society, and integrate fundamental European social values such gender equality and ethics. In addition, the technological breakthroughs are accelerating as never be-fore in history and social innovation (e.g. social media) augments the speed of information gathering and dissemination.
Because societies become ever more complex, collaborative long-term anticipation must replace the "silo" thinking habits and the short-termism that has characterised many aspects of policy-making in Europe.
Foreseeing is not sufficient anymore because it is only a tactical extrapolation of current trends; it is the future of the past. Foresighting however is strategic because it is based on more disruptive views; it is about the future of the future.
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201
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