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Jobs and Skills

The Future of Jobs and Skills in Africa Preparing the Region for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Wednesday, May 3, 2017
Abstract in English: 
With more than 60% of its population under the age of 25, sub-Saharan Africa is already the world’s youngest region today – and, by 2030, will be home to more than one-quarter of the world’s under-25 population. As this young population, the best-educated and globally connected the continent has ever had, enters the world of work, the region has a demographic opportunity. But the region can only leverage this opportunity by unlocking latent talent and preparing its people for the future of work.
The Executive Briefing – drawing on the insight and project work of the Forum’s System Initiative on Shaping the Future of Education, Gender and Work – aims to serve as a practical guide for leaders from business, government, civil society and the education sector, and finds that the region’s capacity to adapt to the requirements of future jobs leaves little space for complacency. While a number of African economies are relatively under-exposed to labour market disruptions at present, this picture is changing rapidly. This window of opportunity must be used by the region’s leaders to prepare for tomorrow.
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28
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The future of industry in Europe

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Wednesday, April 19, 2017
Abstract in English: 
This study analyses the key challenges for Local and Regional Authorities (LRAs) in developing a long-term, structured industrial policy, with a global view. The policy should promote structural change and raise the industrial contribution to GDP to the 20% target set by the European Commission (EC) in December 2014.
New means of production incorporate a mix of processes located in both high-cost and low-cost countries and are based on a wide range of factors enabled by technological developments. Significant changes in consumption are increasingly driven by individual needs which are more sensitive to social and environmental aspects. Together these require a more flexible, hybrid and servitisation-oriented industrial paradigm.
The way LRAs can guide this shift strictly depends on their ability to combine strengths in traditional sectors with innovative trajectories of industrial development in dynamic new sectors. Faced with a growing complexity of industrial challenges, LRAs are called on to design and implement a systemic industrial policy coordinated with national and EU level policies, pulled by vision and pushed by competition.
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140
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Marché actuel et offre de la filière minérale de construction et évaluation à échéance de 2030

Title Original Language: 
Marché actuel et offre de la filière minérale de construction et évaluation à échéance de 2030
Abstract Original Language: 
Dans le contexte économique actuel et au vu des enjeux sociétaux et écologiques du secteur du bâtiment (construction neuve et réhabilitation) et des travaux publics, le dynamisme de la filière extractive et de première transformation est nécessaire afin de répondre à des enjeux forts en termes de compétitivité, de croissance et d’emplois difficilement délocalisables. Afin de contribuer à une meilleure connaissance des acteurs et du marché actuel des systèmes et produits de construction minéraux, ainsi que des évolutions prévisibles à horizon 2030, six organismes ont souhaité s’associer pour conduire une étude analytique et prospective sur l’industrie de la filière minérale. Cette étude, confiée au groupement RDC Environnement – Crédoc – BRGM, a permis d’établir un diagnostic des forces et faiblesses des différents segments de la filière, de donner une vision prospective établie sur la base de facteurs de mutation bien identifiés et de dégager des mesures opérationnelles permettant le succès des filières d’avenir. Au travers de plusieurs scénarios, cette étude conduit à: a) Établir un diagnostic précis portant sur l’extraction, la production, le recyclage ou la réutilisation des matériaux ainsi que sur l’évolution des marchés actuels (bâtiment et travaux publics), des capacités de production, des profils des acteurs, de la localisation de leur centre de décision et leur positionnement sur leur marché (nombre d’entreprises, chiffre d’affaires, emploi, balance commerciale, etc.); b) Identifier les grands enjeux des acteurs de la filière, les perspectives d’évolution du marché et des offres (accessibilité des gisements et acceptabilité de leur exploitation, enjeux environnementaux, innovations, réglementations du bâtiment, commandes publiques, effets de substitution entre matériaux, projets d’infrastructures, etc.), et la concurrence européenne et internationale; c) Identifier les enjeux environnementaux, sociaux et économiques d’une substitution des produits de la filière minérale de construction par d’autres matériaux, importés, recyclés, de courte durée de vie, déchets industriels; d) Identifier les enjeux environnementaux et sanitaires des produits de construction pour la construction du bâtiment et des travaux publics, pour leur entretien et pour leur déconstruction, leur analyse du cycle de vie, la qualité environnementale des réseaux, la durée de vie des réseaux, etc.); e) Évaluer le dynamisme de la filière en France en termes d’innovation; f) Dresser une vision prospective, à un horizon 2030, de la filière; f) Formuler des recommandations sur les politiques publiques à mettre en place pour favoriser l’accès à la ressource, soutenir la compétitivité de la filière et dégager des pistes d’actions visant à capter le potentiel de développement au bénéfice de l’ensemble de la chaîne industrielle, ou encore initier des actions collectives entre les acteurs et/ou des partenariats (innovation, co-investissement, exportation).
Original Language: 
Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, November 22, 2016
Abstract in English: 
Dans le contexte économique actuel et au vu des enjeux sociétaux et écologiques du secteur du bâtiment (construction neuve et réhabilitation) et des travaux publics, le dynamisme de la filière extractive et de première transformation est nécessaire afin de répondre à des enjeux forts en termes de compétitivité, de croissance et d’emplois difficilement délocalisables. Afin de contribuer à une meilleure connaissance des acteurs et du marché actuel des systèmes et produits de construction minéraux, ainsi que des évolutions prévisibles à horizon 2030, six organismes ont souhaité s’associer pour conduire une étude analytique et prospective sur l’industrie de la filière minérale. Cette étude, confiée au groupement RDC Environnement – Crédoc – BRGM, a permis d’établir un diagnostic des forces et faiblesses des différents segments de la filière, de donner une vision prospective établie sur la base de facteurs de mutation bien identifiés et de dégager des mesures opérationnelles permettant le succès des filières d’avenir. Au travers de plusieurs scénarios, cette étude conduit à: a) Établir un diagnostic précis portant sur l’extraction, la production, le recyclage ou la réutilisation des matériaux ainsi que sur l’évolution des marchés actuels (bâtiment et travaux publics), des capacités de production, des profils des acteurs, de la localisation de leur centre de décision et leur positionnement sur leur marché (nombre d’entreprises, chiffre d’affaires, emploi, balance commerciale, etc.); b) Identifier les grands enjeux des acteurs de la filière, les perspectives d’évolution du marché et des offres (accessibilité des gisements et acceptabilité de leur exploitation, enjeux environnementaux, innovations, réglementations du bâtiment, commandes publiques, effets de substitution entre matériaux, projets d’infrastructures, etc.), et la concurrence européenne et internationale; c) Identifier les enjeux environnementaux, sociaux et économiques d’une substitution des produits de la filière minérale de construction par d’autres matériaux, importés, recyclés, de courte durée de vie, déchets industriels; d) Identifier les enjeux environnementaux et sanitaires des produits de construction pour la construction du bâtiment et des travaux publics, pour leur entretien et pour leur déconstruction, leur analyse du cycle de vie, la qualité environnementale des réseaux, la durée de vie des réseaux, etc.); e) Évaluer le dynamisme de la filière en France en termes d’innovation; f) Dresser une vision prospective, à un horizon 2030, de la filière; f) Formuler des recommandations sur les politiques publiques à mettre en place pour favoriser l’accès à la ressource, soutenir la compétitivité de la filière et dégager des pistes d’actions visant à capter le potentiel de développement au bénéfice de l’ensemble de la chaîne industrielle, ou encore initier des actions collectives entre les acteurs et/ou des partenariats (innovation, co-investissement, exportation).
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341
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Demographic, employment, and wage trends in South Africa

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Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Sunday, June 26, 2016
Abstract in English: 
This paper looks to uncover the growth traps and opportunities for the South African economy, with a focus on underlying labour market dynamics. We explore the potential of South Africa’s demographic dividend. We also consider the structure of the labour market and the growth-employment interactions, which uncover the skills-biased labour demand path of the economy and a rising trend in the use of labour brokers to source temporary workers. Finally, we show a new labour market trend has emerged: a rise in the share of public sector employment along with higher conditional returns to public sector workers than to those in the private sector.
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41
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A New Skills Agenda for Europe

Abstract Original Language: 
‘A New Skills Agenda for Europe’ was published on 10 June 2016. Its focus is on equipping Europeans with the right skills in order to increase Europe’s workforce employability and to respond to changes in labour market requirements. The agenda is grounded on the evidence of the existence of skills gap and mismatch across the Union and within countries. There is a shortage of basic, digital, transversal, and entrepreneurial skills. A common understanding of key competences on the job is missing. Vocational education and training (VET) is undervalued and its attractiveness and opportunities may be enhanced. Overall, skills intelligence allowing for more informed choices is indispensable for skills policies to make a difference in addressing the extent of mismatch of supplied competences and the occurrence of gaps. All these aspects are relevant at the territorial level. In fact, the outlining of policies and/or interventions in the domains of education and training as well as of youth, employment and migration is not solely a prerogative of national governments. It also occurs at the local and regional level. Furthermore, it is at this same level that labour market needs meet the skills supply and that future trends of job opportunities as well as cooperative approaches among different stakeholders of the labour market are shaped.
Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Wednesday, July 13, 2016
Abstract in English: 
‘A New Skills Agenda for Europe’ focus on equipping Europeans with the right skills in order to increase Europe’s workforce employability and to respond to changes in labour market requirements. The agenda is grounded on the evidence of the existence of skills gap and mismatch across the Union and within countries. There is a shortage of basic, digital, transversal, and entrepreneurial skills. A common understanding of key competences on the job is missing. Vocational education and training (VET) is undervalued and its attractiveness and opportunities may be enhanced. Overall, skills intelligence allowing for more informed choices is indispensable for skills policies to make a difference in addressing the extent of mismatch of supplied competences and the occurrence of gaps. All these aspects are relevant at the territorial level. In fact, the outlining of policies and/or interventions in the domains of education and training as well as of youth, employment and migration is not solely a prerogative of national governments. It also occurs at the local and regional level. Furthermore, it is at this same level that labour market needs meet the skills supply and that future trends of job opportunities as well as cooperative approaches among different stakeholders of the labour market are shaped.
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91
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The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, January 18, 2016
Abstract in English: 
Today, we are at the beginning of a Fourth Industrial Revolution. Developments in genetics, artificial intelligence, robotics, nanotechnology, 3D printing and biotechnology, to name just a few, are all building on and amplifying one another. This will lay the foundation for a revolution more comprehensive and all-encompassing than anything we have ever seen. Smart systems—homes, factories, farms, grids or cities—will help tackle problems ranging from supply chain management to climate change. The rise of the sharing economy will allow people to monetize everything from their empty house to their car.
While the impending change holds great promise, the patterns of consumption, production and employment created by it also pose major challenges requiring proactive adaptation by corporations, governments and individuals. Concurrent to the technological revolution are a set of broader socio-economic, geopolitical and demographic drivers of change, each interacting in multiple directions and intensifying one another. As entire industries adjust, most occupations are undergoing a fundamental transformation. While some jobs are threatened by redundancy and others grow rapidly, existing jobs are also going through a change in the skill sets required to do them. The debate on these transformations is often polarized between those who foresee limitless new opportunities and those that foresee massive dislocation of jobs. In fact, the reality is highly specific to the industry, region and occupation in question as well as the ability of various stakeholders to manage change.
The Future of Jobs Report is a first step in becoming specific about the changes at hand. It taps into the knowledge of those who are best placed to observe the dynamics of workforces—Chief Human Resources and Strategy Officers—by asking them what the current shifts mean, specifically for employment, skills and recruitment across industries and geographies. In particular, we have introduced a new measure—skills stability—to quantify the degree of skills disruption within an occupation, a job family or an entire industry. We have also been able to provide an outlook on the gender dynamics of the changes underway, a key element in understanding how the benefits and burdens of the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be distributed.
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167
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Technology, globalisation and the future of work in Europe: Essays on employment in a digitised economy

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, March 10, 2015
Abstract in English: 
The industrial structure of European economies and the types of occupation that they support are changing. This change takes many forms in different national contexts, but there are some common themes. There has been an increase in service-sector employment, both in low-skilled customer service work and in high-skilled ‘knowledge’ occupations, and a corresponding drop in manufacturing employment. This has contributed to a ‘polarisation’ of the workforce in many countries, with more high-skill and low-skill jobs but fewer requiring mid-level skills. At the same time, young people are finding it increasingly hard to get a foothold in the labour market, and the proportion of the workforce employed on full-time, permanent contracts has shrunk.

Some of the changes are cyclical, the result of recession followed by a stuttering recovery. The rise in temporary work, for example, might be expected to recede when European economies are again growing strongly enough to bring unemployment down towards its pre-recession level. Other changes, however, are the result of major structural forces operating in the global economy: the rapid pace of technological innovation, globalisation and demographic change. These forces are likely to continue to cause dislocation and disruption in European labour markets for the foreseeable future. As a result, there will be a fundamental shift in the types of jobs that are available for workers and in the skills demanded by employers across Europe. Understanding the likely changes in the European labour market over the next decade is essential if policymakers and firms are to set Europe onto a path towards permanently lower unemployment through the creation of many more well-paid jobs.
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124
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European employers' perspectives on long-term unemployment, recruitment and public employment services

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, May 1, 2015
Abstract in English: 
Based on original polling across five European countries, this report explores employers' views on a range of issues related to long-term unemployment – their attitudes towards the unemployed, especially on skills and employability, and the effectiveness of their contact with public employment services.
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38
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