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New Technologies

Can Blockchain revolutionize international trade?

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, January 12, 2018
Abstract in English: 
Trade has always been shaped by technological innovation. In recent times, a new technology – Blockchain – has been greeted by many as the next big game-changer. This publication explores the question of whether Blockchain may revolutionize international trade.
Opening with an explanation of the technology, the publication goes on to analyse the relevance of this technology for international trade by reviewing how it is currently used and how it may potentially be used in the various areas covered by WTO rules. In doing so, it offers insights into the extent to which this technology could affect cross-border trade in goods and services and in intellectual property rights.
The publication also discusses the potential of Blockchain for reducing trade costs and enhancing supply chain transparency, as well as the opportunities it provides for small-scale producers and companies. It concludes with a review of various challenges that must be addressed before the technology can be used on a wide scale and have a significant impact on international trade.
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163
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Boosting productivity and preparing for the future of work in Germany

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, August 17, 2018
Abstract in English: 
This paper reviews policies to strengthen Germany’s productivity growth and prepare for changes in labour markets brought about by new technologies. This paper also discusses how social protection and the bargaining framework should be reformed for the future of work. Germany enjoys a relatively high labour productivity level but productivity growth has been modest in recent years. There is room to boost productivity growth by accelerating the diffusion of new technologies throughout the economy. Vigorous entrepreneurship and innovation by small and medium enterprises are key for such technology diffusion while strong broadband and mobile networks widen the scope of data-intensive technologies that can be exploited to increase productivity. Widespread use of new technologies will bring about significant changes in skill demand and work arrangements. As in many countries, Germany saw a decline in the share of middle-skilled jobs in employment. A relatively high share of jobs is expected to be automated or undergo significant changes in task contents as a result of technological change. New technologies are also likely to increase individuals engaging in new forms of work, such as gig work intermediated by digital platforms. Such workers are less covered by public social safety nets such as unemployment insurance than regular employment.
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39
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Building a Smart Partnership for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Friday, April 27, 2018
Abstract in English: 
The emerging technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution offer unprecedented avenues to improve quality of life, advance society, and contribute to global economic growth. Yet along with greater prospects for human advancement and progress, advancements in these technologies have the potential to be dramatically disruptive, threatening existing assumptions around national security, rules for international cooperation, and a thriving global commerce. This report by the Atlantic Council’s Scowcroft Center for Strategy and Security and the Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) addresses emerging technologies in key areas of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and explores innovative ways by which the United States and the Republic of Korea can cooperate around advancements in artificial intelligence and robotics; biotechnology; and the Internet of Things.
Each chapter focuses on one of these scientific advancements, with two authors exploring the technology from the perspective of the United States and the Republic of Korea, respectively. Building off the work already underway in both countries, the authors of this report examine opportunities for continued growth and development in these key areas, offering concrete, distinct recommendations for increasing US-ROK cooperation around each technology as the world moves further into the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
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92
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The OECD Handbook for Innovative Learning Environments

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Publication date: 
Thursday, June 22, 2017
Abstract in English: 
How might we know whether our schools or system are set up to optimise learning? How can we find out whether we are getting the most from technology? How can we evaluate our innovation or think through whether our change initiative will bring about its desired results? Teachers and educational leaders who grapple with such questions will find this handbook an invaluable resource. It draws on extensive reports and materials compiled over a decade by the OECD in its Innovative Learning Environments (ILE) project. Its four chapters – The learning principles; The innovative learning environment framework; Learning leadership and evaluative thinking; and Transformation and change - each contain a concise, non-technical overview introduction followed by a set of tools. The handbook makes good the ILE ambition not just to analyse change but to offer practical help to those around the world determined to innovate their schools and systems.

“If there has been one lesson learnt about innovating education, it is that teachers, schools and local administrators should not just be involved in the implementation of educational change but they should have a central role in its design.” Andreas Schleicher, OECD Director for Education and Skills.
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100
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Big Data: A Twenty-First Century Arms Race

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Tuesday, June 27, 2017
Abstract in English: 
We are living in a world awash in data. Accelerated interconnectivity, driven by the proliferation of internet-connected devices, has led to an explosion of data—big data. A race is now underway to develop new technologies and implement innovative methods that can handle the volume, variety, velocity, and veracity of big data and apply it smartly to provide decisive advantage and help solve major challenges facing companies and governments.
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90
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The sharing economy: challenges and outlook

Title Original Language: 
Enjeux et perspectives de la consommation collaborative
Original Language: 
Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Monday, April 10, 2017
Abstract in English: 
In the broadest sense, the sharing economy may be defined as a community of individuals lending, renting, donating, sharing, swapping and buying goods or services.

There are currently around 300 digital peer-to-peer platforms in France, many of which have an established global presence. This study looks at the state of the sharing economy – from a qualitative and quantitative slant – and analyses supply and demand trends across the following key sectors: travel, transport and storage services, accommodation, entertainment, food, consumer goods, clothing and footwear, domestic services and finance.

The study also considers how traditional players are responding – in some cases to direct competition from the sharing economy – and dissects the positive and negative forces shaping this new phenomenon, touching on aspects such as macroeconomic factors, regulation, new technologies, consumer habits and business model viability.

In addition, the authors outline a series of scenarios depicting what the sharing economy could look like in 2020 – a transition, a partnership between traditional players and new sharing economy protagonists, and an “economic bubble” triggered by unworkable business models. The study concludes with a set of recommendations on ways to foster this emerging trend through policy-making and regulation, focusing on the need to protect consumers, bolster sharing economy initiatives, and create a level playing field.

The service providers behind this study remain exclusively liable for the research methods used, as well as the findings and recommendations detailed in this report.
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336
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New Vision for Education: Fostering Social and Emotional Learning Through Technology

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Thursday, March 10, 2016
Abstract in English: 
The New Vision for Education project examines the role that technology can potentially play to improve education for the future. In phase II, we investigated innovative ways to help students develop competencies* and character qualities** broadly defined as social emotional skills, which are critical components of 21st century skill framework but not a core focus in today’s curriculum.

Can technology effectively facilitate the development of competencies and character qualities, in addition to cognitive skills? If yes, what are the opportunities to capture to make it happen? What are the immediate, mid-term, and long-term barriers to remove? How can multistakeholders work together to create a roadmap for this vision?

In seeking answers to these questions, the report assembles a list of 52 research-based digital product features that are highly correlated with the ten competencies and character qualities and identifies five nascent technology trends – wearable devices, leading-edge apps, virtual reality, advanced analytics and machine learning, and affective computing – that extend ways of fostering social emotional learning (SEL) and also offer potential for exciting new learning strategies. The report concludes with recommendations to each stakeholder on actions to advance SEL and SEL technology adoption.
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36
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Advancing Manufacturing Advancing Europe

Date of Editorial Board meeting: 
Publication date: 
Thursday, May 15, 2014
Abstract in English: 
Manufacturing is the most important source of economic development and growth. The economic importance of manufacturing goes far beyond its contribution to GDP, for which the European Commission has put forward a target of 20 %. The manufacturing industry in the EU is worth € 7.000 billion in turnover and it accounts for 80% of the total EU exports and 80 % of the private R&D expenditure. Moreover, it provides jobs for 30 million employees directly and is the source for twice as many jobs indirectly, the vast majority in small or medium-sized enterprises. To maintain its importance the industry in Europe needs modernisation. Last year the contribution of manufacturing to EU GDP has declined to 15.1 %. To be able to reverse this trend and start an Industrial Renaissance in Europe, we need more investment in innovation, resource efficiency, new technologies and skills. In the conclusions of the European Council of 20-21 March 2014, the Heads of State and Government underlined that industrial competitiveness should be at the centre of policy-making at all levels. It is an important signal for both the public and the business sector, to which they should respond with specific measures facilitating the industrial change. That’s why advanced manufacturing is one of the six priority areas for the modernisation of industry in the European Union. The market uptake of advanced manufacturing and clean technologies can improve productivity, resource efficiency and competitiveness in any manufacturing sector. To speed up this process a dedicated Task Force on Advanced Manufacturing for Clean Production was created in 2013. One year after its creation, the Task Force has drawn up a set of targeted actions aimed at advancing the European industry. In order to give Europe a competitive lead in the new industrial revolution, we need to engage in a partnership between the European Commission, Member States and industry. Europe needs industry and industry needs Europe. Get prepared for the future of manufacturing!
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